Sunday, February 12, 2017

Books of Hours grew out of the Psalter and the Breviary and for more detailed information on collecting, grading and buying Books of Hours; there are a number of authoritative texts available to the curios reader.
  • Books of Hours Reconsidered (Studies in Medieval and Early Renaissance Art History) Hindman, Sandra Published by Brepols Publishers ISBN 10: 1905375948 / ISBN 13: 781905375943
  • The Book of Hours. A textual explanation of 15th century illuminated manuscripts Published by Barbara J. Raheb, Van Nuys, CA, 1979
  • French Books of Hours: Making an Archive of Prayer, C.1400 - 1600 Reinburg, Virginia Published by Cambridge Univ Pr, 2012 ISBN 10: 1107007216 / ISBN 13: 9781107007215
  • An Intimate Art : 12 Books of Hours for 2012 Hindman Sandra and Bergeron-Foote Ariane Published by Les Enluminures, Paris-Chicago-New York, 2012 ISBN 10: 0983854637 / ISBN 13: 9780983854630
  • Books of Hours and Their Owners Harthan, John Published by Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1977 ISBN 10: 0500232172 / ISBN 13: 9780500232170
  • Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life Wieck, Roger S. Published by George Braziller, 1988 ISBN 10: 0807611891 / ISBN 13: 9780807611890
  • Painted Prayers The Book of Hours in Medieval and Renaissance Art Wieck, Roger S. Published by W. W. Norton & Co Inc., 1997 ISBN 10: 0807614181 / ISBN 13: 9780807614181
Just to highlight a few books about books of hours. There are also many individual books written about books of hours as well as facsimiles of the books. A beginning collector can first purchase the texts about books of hours (some of which are somewhat hard to find and can be pricey (~$75-$250) and can be found at Advanced Book Exchange or on Biblio and once the appetite has been educated, collecting the facsimiles of famous works; while not the same as possessing an original work, can be rewarding. One thing we don't recommend is buying individual 'leaves' of Books of Hours, unless you know exactly which book they came out of and it is worth. Collecting, individual leaves is a market but unless it is a very rare leaf, while unique, offers a fraction of what a complete book of hours possesses in the way of presentation and worth. Retail pricing of books of hours can vary widely, ranging on the low side for incomplete works in the $15,000 to the upper end of $900,000 for a well-documented rare book of hours.

The books of hours were made mostly for women, but books are also made for the male of the house. Books of Hours were passed down and sometimes were divided amongst family members to keep the peace within the family. Books prior to printing could be as expensive as possessing rare gems, silver, gold and even land. The rare books made for the kings, queens, princes and princesses that have been identified and are a part of medieval history, are quite expensive and many are held by museums and rare books libraries across the world. The works usually always have facsimiles made and reproduced in limited editions so they too have become valuable.

Examples of the Structure of a Typical Book of Hours:

The Calendar

The Calendar page is filled with information and is actually a regional guide to where in Europe or in what we now call the United Kingdom the book was intended. There are usually three columns, one for the calendar. The first column is known as the ‘Golden Numbers’ or the days of the new moons or full moons throughout the year. The second column is known as the ‘Dominical Letters’ (a through g) that help a reader find the ‘Sundays’ of the month. The third column is the ancient Roman calendrical system listing the Ides (id), the middle of the month and the Kalends (kl), the first day of the month and Nones the ninth day of the month. These three fixed points were used to count backwards to all other dates.

The Red and Blue lettering are for the Saints days and were known as ‘Red Letter’ days, which were the more important dates to celebrate the Virgin Mary,  and other more important Saints. The calendar in the Books of Hours were also known as ‘perpetual calendars’ as they did not include the more important celebration holidays such as Easter or Christmas, but those dates could be calculated backwards from the perpetual dates. The listing of Saints also helps regionalize the origin of the Book of Hours, also known in the Latin form as ‘Horae’.

Hours of the Virgin

Also known as the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary is a set of inspirational lessons, prayers and brief phrases that refer to the ‘eight’ canonical hours of the day that date back to Roman times and were and are still chanted in monasteries. The eight are Matins, Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext None, Vespers and Compline. Matins and Laud were often sung before sunrise. Prime was often used to teach children to read, hence the word ‘Primer’ is derived from this section. The structure is usually laid out as a series of vesicles that are followed by responses: “Lord open my lips and my mouth shall tell forth thy praise” Response: “God, come to my assistance”. Everything, of course is in Latin. “Domine labia mea aperies et os maeum annunciabit laudem Deus in adjutorium meum intende”

Below is an example describing the time of day and the miniature

  Time Of Day
  the wee hours
  Annunciation– Angel Gabriel greets Mary
  Visitation– Mary visits Elizabeth
  Nativity– Birth of the Christ child
  late morning
  Annunciation– Angels appear to the shepherds
  Adoration of the Magi– Magi come to see the Christ child
  Presentation in the temple– Mary presents the Christ child
  Flight into Egypt– Mary & Joseph flee Herod as directed in a dream
  late evening
  Coronation of the Virgin– Mary crowned Queen of Heaven


The Litany:  Invocations to God, the Blessed Virgin and assorted saints, each followed by the abbreviation "or", the Latin incipt for "ora pro nobis" ("pray for us"). HRC MS 4, p. 174. Mid-15th Century. Latin and French. Leaf size 7.3 x 5.2 in. One or more litanies of the saints normally follow the Penitential Psalms. In a litany, the reader invokes, one by one, a long list of favorite saints, martyrs, confessors, and holy virgins, ending each phrase with the Latin words ora pro nobis ("pray for us"). Economy-minded scribes often abbreviated this common ending with the letters "or," as in the pictured example from HRC MS 4.

An example of a Litany page in a book of hours

Office of the Dead

During the middle ages, death, famine, early loss of life was more common than living a full rich life. Lives were in the words of a famous English scholar Thomas Hobbes: “Solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short”. The church realizing the nature of existence and the need for solace through the divine spirit of Christ, Mary, the angels and God, created the rather lengthy section known as the Office of the Dead.

“As in the examples shown here, the illustrations frequently present the evangelists at work writing their gospel onto a scroll or codex and using the implements employed by medieval scribes. The traditional symbol, or attribute, of the evangelist often appears in the illustration, as in these examples from the Ransom Center collections.

The illustration for St. John nearly always shows the apostle seated on the Isle of Patmos—as in this example from HRC MS 5—where Christian tradition holds that he composed the Book of Revelation. The remaining illustrations normally show the relevant apostle working in a scriptorium or study.”

Penitential Psalms

“A Book of Hours often contains one or both of two well-known cycles of Psalms: the Seven Penitential Psalms and the Gradual Psalms (Psalms 6, 32, 38, 51, 102, 130, and 143 and Psalms 120–134, respectively, in the King James Bible).

These and other Psalms were so well known to medieval worshipers that each Psalm is often indicated only by its incipit, or opening line. The reader is expected to recite the remaining lines from memory.

When the Penitential Psalms include miniatures, they often open with a scene from the life of King David—a bad example of adulterous behavior but a comforting model of repentance and forgiveness—as in these wonderfully illuminated images from an early example of a printed Book of Hours.”

Bravery in Battle and Absolution and Gratitude from the King…

Prayers of the Virgin

This section is mostly text in many books of hours and if there is an image, it is always Mary and her Son, Jesus. “The Obsecro te ("I beseech thee") and the O intemerata ("O immaculate Virgin"), two prayers addressed to the Blessed Virgin, are present in nearly all 15th-century Books of Hours. Each of these prayers is written and recited in the first person and makes a plaintive appeal directly to the Virgin Mary for aid and intercession with her Son. The prayers are sometimes personalized, with the name of the book's original owner inserted into the text or the accompanying illustration. The Obsecro te specifically asks that death not come suddenly or unexpectedly, a plea that may have provided some comfort against the toll of plague and war that afflicted late-medieval Europe.

An image depicting the Virgin Mary at prayer, usually with her Son, symbolizes Mary's role as intercessor in these prayers and is the traditional image for this section. As shown in the example from HRC MS 6, the Virgin is sometimes pictured alone next to the Obsecro te prayer. The Prayers to the Virgin have no fixed position within a Book of Hours, but often the prayers are placed between the Gospel Lessons and Hours of the Virgin.”


This is the section where particular Saints and their trials and tribulations and exaltations overcoming the injustice that usually results in the loss of their lives for God and their beliefs. “God or the three Persons of the Trinity always begin the Suffrages, followed by the Virgin, the archangel Michael, and John the Baptist (the last two prominently positioned because of their importance as judge and intercessor, respectively, at the Last Judgment). The apostles appear next, followed by male martyrs and confessors (non-martyr saints), female saints and virgin martyrs.
Each Suffrage is composed of four elements: three ejaculations (antiphon, versicle, response) followed by a longer prayer (oratio). The first three elements constitute a string of praises. As for the prayer, its first half recounts an episode from the saint's life or touches on some important aspect of the saint's holiness; the second half of the prayer is always a petition for aid from God through the saint's intercession.”

The Gospels

A strange outcome of the church’s domination of the canonical writings is that households during the middle ages did not own a complete bible or even a partial bible. In 405 the definitive version of the bible known as the Vulgate and it reigned supreme for over 1,000 years. Anyone not a priest could NOT own a bible. Bibles prior to the printing press were hand scribed and far too expensive for anyone to own. The possession of bibles is a relatively new and the first really popular bible that was effectively marketed and distributed in Europe and England was by Anton Koberger and is known as the Koberger bible, printed in Latin and High German.

The Gospels in the books of hours were the only way that families could read them, other than attending church and having the priest include a gospel in their liturgy.  The gospels allowed the books of hours to become divine religious possessions that families could look to in their own dire hours of need for prayer and comfort when the church or a priest were not available. The gospels is really the cornerstone of the entire books of hours, linking all of the sections and making the book of hours an important family possession.

Richard Gabriel- Calix Books

What is the value of my book?
Book values are ethereal; they can fluctuate like any other piece of art. When the book market is hot for a particular author, genre of writing or a series of modern first, signed editions that have been authenticated (signatures) and there are more than one buyer bidding for the items, then prices can soar.

Scarcity also drives the market. But a book being scarce does not necessarily make it exceedingly valuable. The best way to judge the value of a book is to do your own research, at least as much as possible. The links that will be helpful and the associations that help foster the true pricing as well as the selling and buying of rare books or just books that are out of print in general are listed below:

·         The Antiquarian Booksellers' Association of America was founded in 1949 to promote interest in rare and antiquarian books and book collecting, and to foster collegial relations. We strive to maintain the highest standards in the trade. All members agree to abide by the ABAA's Code of Ethics. While our members sell, buy, and appraise books and printed matter, our staff can assist you with finding a bookseller and with other trade-related matters.
·         ILAB - History of the International League of Antiquarian Booksellers Amor Librorum Nos Unit. Today the International League of Antiquarian Booksellers unites 22 national associations under one roof. Some of them had already been established when the League was founded in 1947/1948. Five of them were the driving forces: the antiquarian booksellers of Great Britain, France, Denmark, Sweden and The Netherlands. 1906 was the year in which the oldest organization of its kind was established in Great Britain: the Antiquarian Booksellers' Association (ABA). The French Syndicat National de la Librairie Ancienne et Moderne (SLAM) was created in 1914, followed by Den Danske Antikvarboghandlerforening (ABF) in 1920. Economic crisis and radical political changes also affected the book market; rare booksellers realized that it could be an advantage to be organized. In 1935 the Nederlandsche Vereeniging van Antiquaren (NVvA) was established in Amsterdam. A year later the Swedish rare book dealers set up the Svenska Antikvariatföreningen (SVAF), then the Swiss booksellers founded the Vereinigung der Buchantiquare und Kupferstichhändler in der Schweiz (VEBUKU) in 1939. During the Second World War the Finnish Antiquarian Booksellers’ Association (SAY) was created in 1941, led for a long time by Erik Olsoni, whereas Jørgen W. Cappelen (Cappelens Antikvariat) and others established the Norsk Antikvarbokhandlerforening (NABF) in April 1942. Outside Europe the Brazilian booksellers were the first to form a national association: Walter Geyerhahn, his brother Stefan Geyerhahn and Erich Eichner, the proprietors of the famous "Livraria Editora KOSMOS", founded the Associação Brasileira de Livreiros Antiquários (ABLA) in Rio de Janeiro in 1945. And in Belgium the Chambre Professionelle Belge de la Librairie Ancienne et Moderne (CLAM) or Belgische Beroepskamer van Antiquaren (BBA) was founded in 1946. Accesses to all the regional associations are through the main web page of ILAB a great resource for buying and possibly selling your books to dealers.
·         AbeBooks is an online marketplace for books. Millions of brand new books, used books, rare books, and out-of-print books are offered for sale through the AbeBooks websites from thousands of booksellers around the world.  Readers can find bestsellers, collectors can find rare books, students can find new and used textbooks, and treasure hunters can find long-lost books. AbeBooks Inc. is a subsidiary of, Inc. AbeBooks, an online bookselling pioneer, was acquired in December 2008 and remains a stand-alone operation with headquarters in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, and a European office in Dusseldorf, Germany.  Our mission is to help people find and buy any book from any bookseller and our business stretches around the world with six international sites -,,,,,, and, a worldwide marketplace for German rare books. Founded in 1995 by two couples from Victoria, went live in 1996 and immediately began to transform the world’s used book business by making hard-to-find books easy to locate and purchase.  In 2002, the New York Times described the company as “an actual Internet success story.” By 2003, the United Nations acclaimed AbeBooks as one of the world’s leading ecommerce companies at its World Summit. The unique inventory of books for sale from booksellers includes the world’s finest antiquarian books dating back to the 15th century, countless out-of-print gems, millions of signed books, millions of used copies, a vast selection of college textbooks and new books too. AbeBooks remains a company with a passion for books. Booksellers love AbeBooks for helping them to sell books to buyers around the globe – 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.  Buyers love AbeBooks for helping them to find and purchase books from the vast online inventory. The AbeBooks blog, Reading Copy, is a valuable daily source of company and book-related news.
·         Biblio was created for the love of books, and a desire to give local bookstores global reach. We understand the feeling of discovering a literary treasure because we’ve shared in the quest. Biblio is dedicated to helping you find the book or bookseller you seek.  FOR BIBLIOPHILES. We believe a book that has been owned, read and cherished only adds to its value and enriches its history. Our customers aren’t looking for just a common product; they’re searching for a genuine experience that harkens back to the touch and smells of an old bookshop from a former time. They find this experience in Biblio’s vast book collection, which is individually cultivated by our independent sellers. Find a Bookshop | Specialist booksellers FOR LITERACY. Biblio is privileged to be part of a global community of book lovers, and we’re committed to fostering its growth. We invite you to join in our sustainability practices and to support BiblioWorks, a 501c(3) non-profit we created in 2005, to provide books to communities in need. About BiblioWorks and our Social Responsibility.

There are multiple other sites that you can go to and learn how to explore the potential value of your books and what the collection of books might be worth. Until you have found out, it is best to avoid selling books at a yard or estate sale. There are also bookdealers within your local area that can be of help. Some offer appraisal services and there are also some very good auction houses that specialize in rare books and if the works are properly described, they will take a book on consignment.

Chances are that if your relative that has left the books, papers and other ephemera, may have been known to bookdealers and other book collectors, so it would be wise to see if you can locate the purchase documentation, that helps establish the provenance or the trace of a book or a book collection.

Once you have learned a bit about how the process works, don’t panic. Learning how to catalog a book so that another bookdealer will have a description of the book and its condition will all be found on the web. There are also many books about books and about collecting, selling, auctioning and building a library. Additional information can also be found at the library associations. You can register for free and search libraries around the world for your book. This link is the one I often use when searching for some idea of how scarce a book might be.

Friday, August 29, 2014

Book Sizes and Collation

Information that book collectors should have readily at their fingertips are the sizes of books and their designation in annotation. Here might be a helpful table that can be cut and pasted or printed (a jpg file) and stored whenever anyone runs across a books description or a reference of a book that perhaps you as a book collector are thinking about buying.

It is important to remember; that when measuring a book, it is not the book jacket or the book cover that you measure or the binding but the actual page! A habit that many binders had, when asked to rebind a book, was to trim down a book for a new binding, cutting or trimming the page sizes. This reduces the size of the pages, sometimes considerably. In older books, you can look at what is called the pagination or the page count, that a printer will put at the bottom of the page that has a series of letters and numbers, usually according to the alphabet but over the centuries some unique page pagination or signatures were used to tell the printer, which page follows which previous page. Many bookbinders had workers who may have been great craftsman but could have been illiterate and also following a simple and repeatable pattern of binding pages reduced errors in the binding of a book.

Another designation was the ‘last word repeat’ this is a technique where the printer would print the last word of the sentence at the bottom of the page again and it would be the first word on the following page. Both designations; the alphabet/numerical/symbol designation and the repeat word designation describes the collation or the page counting of a book. Let’s be clear, there are two numbers to a page, verso and recto so a single page could have the number 1 and the number 2 on the opposite side of the page but in pagination it is only counted as one page.

Some further explanation is needed of why books are designated by name as folio, 4to, 8vo etc. These descriptions are how many times a single sheet of paper is folded after printing. A folio is a single sheet of paper in the case of a standard folio, which is approximately 24 by 30 inches and is printed on both sides with print equally distributed, top to bottom and side to side. The printer would set the type for one side in a folio sheet with two areas that were the text. They would then print 500 or 1,000 sheets on a single side, wait for the ink to dry, change the type, turn over the sheet and print the next two pages and this would be repeated over and over again until the book was completely printed. The unfolded sheets were then sent to the bookbinder who would fold the sheets in half, line up the paginations or the last word repeat, sew along the spine, add boards, leather etc. completing the binding of the book. The books would then be sent to the Booksellers or to the subscribers of the book, if it were sold in advance. Publishers were in the minority and in order to protect their printing, authors would often engage themselves completely in the printing, binding, subscription and distribution of their books. Once a book was printed, copies were often made within a very short period of time by other printers as there was NO COPYRIGHT protection until the end of the 19th century (Mark Twain often lamented about the unscrupulous behavior of printers and publishers, he likened them to Politicians, neither represented an honorable trade). It was a cut-throat business filled with many unscrupulous characters. In England, booksellers were considered nearly as low as actors and prostitutes in London society. The King considered them as seditious, unruly and needed to be controlled. Booksellers often became publishers and printers often became booksellers and publishers. Good bookbinders were looked upon as ‘craftsmen’. Embellishing a book not only meant creating color within the book but giving it a character when holding it and opening it. The more money you could spend on binding a book, the higher your social status within society. But back to printing.

Printing production becomes a little more complicated as we move down the size designations of a book printer and the book binder. A 4to has four folds of a single sheet of paper and the printing must be done so when the single sheet of paper is folded, all the pages are in the SAME DIRECTION after the page bottoms are ‘cut’ by the binder or in some cases, the owner or buyer of the book. A good way to understand how this works is to take a single sheet of paper and fold it so that there are four sheets and study it. Try to imagine the single sheet laid out on a single bed and the print type being laid out so that upon printing and folding, it all comes together including the reverse side of the sheet. As we move up the designations, 8vo, and 16mo and up to 64mo, the complications of printing, binding and font size all play a role in how a book looks; feels and reads. We complicate all of this by throwing in engravings, flourishes, and many other signatures at the top and bottom of pages and we can see the character of books emerging as unique works of art, printed in limited editions, lost or destroyed over time and the surviving specimens have a variety of differences that all go into the description of a book. Understanding how a book is put together, its binding and its collation are critical to understanding the value, scarcity and character of a book that you are purchasing either for resale or for your collection.

It will be hard to imagine that a digital image of a book will one day have any value to a collector. Books have always had a character, developed through the paper it was printed on, the type of ink used and the font, the pagination, the embellishments and the book binding. Equally important was the size. Some very small books have a remarkable character to them and large books such as an atlas folio or for that matter a regular folio with wide margins and a period binding are equally enchanting in much different and powerful ways; they equally compel you to marvel at their beauty and strength.

You are reading this text of Calibri font developed by Microsoft in 2003 versus my usual is New Times Roman, developed in 1931 by the Times (London).